The production process of nitro aromatic hazardous compounds, with the generation of acidic wastewater, represent a significant dangerous for the health and safety of the workers and the environment. This wastewater containing solid particles of the nitro aromatic compounds and nitric acid in a concentration range between 58-62 %, constitute a potential danger to the environment where the occurrence of accidents are the main concern and reason for its urgent elimination. The present study is focused on to develop an efficient installation to treat acidic wastewater resulting from the synthesis process of nitro aromatic compound, considering workers safety and environmental criteria.
In this research, a detailed study of the different alternatives that can be used for effective and safety treatment of acidic wastewater was performed. The analysis of several technological schemes for the acidic wastewaters neutralization and the selection of the most feasible alternative from a technical- economical point of view were carried out. The ammonia was selected as neutralization compound due to its low cost and high demand of the product (ammonium nitrate) in the agriculture. An experimental design to carry out mass and energy balances was performed in order to define the most appropriate parameters to achieve the greatest effectiveness for the contaminated wastewater treatment. A lack of available information about the parameters of the chemical reaction that takes place between the ammonia and nitric acid (ammonium nitrate formation) as well as the reactor operating conditions was observed. The simulation and mathematical modeling developed in this research represent a significant advance in the knowledge of this process for working in a much more secure form.
The technological scheme of the process was defined and the design of the main and auxiliary equipment as well as the piping system was carried out using different computational programs. Finally, this paper proposes a technological design for the treatment of acidic wastewater generated by the production process of nitro aromatic compound, it which represents the basic criteria for the further design, construction and equipment installation of the plant.