This study is located in the within of a research devoted at processing wastes both in developing and in developed Countries, so reducing both environmental pollution and seasonal fruit losses. In particular, the full work intended to completely process pineapple wastes into vinegar which may be then used as dressing, food preservative, and disinfectant. The preliminary trials presented here deepened the first process step (i.e. the saccharification) and looked into the feasibility of producing the greatest yield of reducing sugars from peels and core of pineapples.
Wastes were cut into thin strips, chopped in a mixer, and divided into samples of peel and core to which distilled water was added. For enhancing reducing sugar yield, physical treatments were arranged to disaggregate the fibrous structure followed by enzyme treatments to breakdown cellulose polymers and to hydrolyse sucrose. The optimal time-temperature conditions of each process step were searched for gaining the highest reducing sugars yield at the end of the saccharification. Cellulolytic enzymes were tested for 4-8-18-24 h at 30-40-50 °C, invertase addition was arranged, and amylolytic enzymes were evaluated.
All determinations were done in duplicate and a factorial ANOVA with Tukey’s test at p = 0.05 was used to measure the significance of the differences among treatments.
The conditions allowing the greatest reducing sugar yield were: the addition to 100 g of waste fresh weight (fw) of 0.025 mL of thermostable a-amylase before a 10 min treatment at 143.27 kPa followed by 24 h-50 °C incubation with 0.05 g pectinase/kgfw, 6 g cellulase/kgfw, 1 g hemicellulase/kgfw, and 0.05 % glucoamylase and pullulanase (Venzyme/kgfw). Then, samples were incubated with 0.05 g invertase/kgfw for 3 h at 50 °C. Under these conditions, more than 100 g of reducing sugars per kg of fresh peels and about 330 g of reducing sugars per kg of fresh core were obtained.