The Influence of Sustainable Physical Factors on Hajj Crowd Perception among Internal Pilgrim Group in Mina
Alsolami, B.M.
Embi, M.R.
Enegbuma, W.I.
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Alsolami B., Embi M., Enegbuma W., 2017, The Influence of Sustainable Physical Factors on Hajj Crowd Perception among Internal Pilgrim Group in Mina, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 56, 409-414.
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Devotional and ritual observance by internal pilgrims to Hajj presents a constant journey towards fulfilling the fifth pillar of Islam. Although, internal pilgrims are within their geographical domain, the large number of pilgrims visiting Mina at a given time stimulates crowding perception. Internal pilgrims perform such rituals in Mina for a minimum of three days. The local authorities are constantly expected to provide adequate amenities which require constant assessment to enable internal pilgrims perform their rituals without the stress of feeling crowded. In the quest for sustainable best practices, this paper examines the effects of sustainable physical factors (coding and signage, disorientation cause, spatial anxiety, orientation strategies and routing strategies) on perceived crowding levels among internal group of pilgrims in Mina. Data was collected via self-administered questionnaire from 473 internal pilgrims to Hajj. The data was analysed using SPSS for descriptive analysis and AMOS for Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Internal consistency of the developed research instrument, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and exploratory factor analysis revealed that the research instrument was suitable. The internal pilgrim group measurement model revealed that orientation strategies and routing strategies had the highest correlation. Furthermore, disorientation cause (0.63), spatial anxiety (-0.59), orientation strategies (0.60) and routing strategies (-0.61) were all significantly affecting level of crowding perception except coding and signage (-0.52). In summary, the findings will aid in directing policies aimed at improving crowd control by authorities in Mina.
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