Brassica carinata A. Braun is one of the most interesting oilseed crops suited to arid and semi-arid areas for energy purposes. Several studies have highlighted the possibility of introducing this species into cropping systems, typical of Mediterranean region. The aims of this study were to evaluate the agronomic performance of Brassica carinata germplasm under Mediterranean climatic conditions and to assess the physical and energy characteristics of crop residues and pellets made from the residues. A total of 20 different accessions of Brassica carinata were compared in a semi-arid area of Sicily (Italy). In the two-year test period, the main morphological and yield parameters of the accessions were recorded. Crop residues were characterized by determining the moisture content, the ash content and the gross calorific value. The crop residues were tested for pellet-making and the end product was analysed for its physical and energy properties by determining the ash content, gross calorific value and mechanical durability. For crop residues, differences were found to be highly significant for the moisture content and not significant for the gross calorific value. For pellet, differences were highly significant for all parameters in the study.