The aim of this work is to perform analysis of the oil of the seed of abiu (Pouteria caimito) the presence of minerals (ICP-OES), fatty acids (GC-FID), physical-chemical properties (1H NMR) and acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). Thus, the following results were obtained for the majority fatty acids saturated: palmitic acid(27.3%), and unsaturated: oleic acid (43.1%), linoleic acid (8.6%), ?-linolenic acid (0.4%), and ?-linolenic acid (0.4%). The physical-chemical properties of this oil were: iodine index (42.72 mg I2 g-1), saponification index (230.87 mg KOH g-1), acid number (1.50 mg KOH g-1) and the average molecular weight (710.54 g mol-1). For minerals: phosphorus (8.62 mg 100g-1), calcium (3.50 mg 100g-1), sodium (3.40 mg 100g-1), potassium (2.62mg 100g-1), magnesium (2.29 mg 100g-1), sulfur (1.54 mg 100 g-1). The oil of the abiu seed had 68.40% inhibition on AChE and was therefore considered a potent inhibitor and the oil of abiu presents 35.47 mg EAG. 100 g-1 in its composition. The abiu is a tree that belongs to the Sapoteaceae family, originating in the Amazonregion near the Andean slopes of Peru and the western Brazilian Amazon, easily found in the wild. The abiu is closely tropical or subtropical, adapts to the hot and humid climate, and presents better development conditions when it is located near the equator.