Waste treatment plants are among the major sources of odor nuisances and health risk to workers and nearby residents. In this work, we present an assessment of the seasonal variations in volatile compounds emission and the odor nuisance effects from a waste treatment plant. Air samples were seasonally collected in four different processing units in the plant, and analyzed by both instrumental and sensory methods. Results showed that a total of 17, 27, 23 and 14 volatile compounds were detected in the air samples collected in the four seasons, with average total chemical concentration of 1515.4, 5364.7, 3282.5 and 1067.6 µg m-3. On the other hand, the non-carcinogenic risk of H2S (1.7 and 1.3 in summer and autumn) and dichloromethane (1.7 in summer) exceeded the acceptable risk levels (HI = 1). Carcinogenic risk of ethylbenzene ranged from 2.1E-05 to 4.2E-05 in spring, autumn and winter, exceeding the acceptable carcinogenic risk level (1.0E-06). Moreover, the carcinogenic risk of tetrachloroethylene and ethylbenzene was larger than 1.0E-04 and reached the level of “definite risks” in summer.