At present, the pollution of drinking water sources in many areas of China is becoming more and more serious, which has a great impact on people's health. It is especially necessary to effectively identify the odors in drinking water sources and to master the removal technologies of odors and harmful substances in water sources. This paper takes the irrigated area of Yellow River as an example to study the identification of drinking water odors and the control of harmful substances. The results show that the total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in drinking water of the irrigated area of Yellow River are basically maintained between Class II and Class III, and the ammonia nitrogen concentration changes with seasons, and there are big differences. In drinking water sources of the irrigated area of Yellow River, odorous substances with higher content mainly are: 2-methylisoborneol, ß-cyclocitral, ß-ionone, and geosmin. In recent years, the content of major odor substances has decreased significantly, indicating that the quality of drinking water sources is improving year by year. The highest contribution to the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration removal rate in the water sample is sand filtration, and the removal rate is 21%. The effect of ozone oxidation on TOC removal is not obvious.