A Review on the Economic Feasibility of Composting for Organic Waste Management in Asian Countries
Sabki, Mirza Hussein
Lee, Chew Tin
Bong, Cassendra P. C.
Klemes, Jiri J.
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Sabki M.H., Lee C.T., Bong C.P.C., Klemes J.J., 2018, A Review on the Economic Feasibility of Composting for Organic Waste Management in Asian Countries, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 70, 49-54.
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The rising rate of population growth and industrial development mainly in urban areas have led to significant increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) production. It has been a challenge to materialise a sustainable solid waste management notably in many developing countries. Organic portion represents a significant component in the municipal solid waste across countries with different level of income, ranging from about 25 to 70 %. Composting can be a viable option to manage waste sustainably by transforming waste into value-added fertiliser. Large-scale operation of composting is confronted with concern over feasible economic performance, which varied following different mode of operation. This study aims to review the economic feasibility (EF) on two different composting systems, which are the in-vessel and windrow system, implemented in several developed and developing countries. The review considered the cost factors for both composting systems, including the capital cost and operating cost. The return on investment (ROI) is estimated for both composting systems based on the potential cost benefits from the compost sale and the saving of waste tipping fee. This review provides a better insight into the desirability and applicability of both composting systems as an alternative to the landfilling practice. It is expected that the review of the various composting system could be very useful for improving the sustainable composting technology in the developing countries.

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