Factors that influence the industrial ethanol fermentation process are complex. The development of computer monitoring technology can optimize fermentation conditions to obtain the maximum yield. This paper discusses the application of computer control technology in industrial ethanol production and fermentation, and studies the dynamics of ethanol fermentation. It finds that the monitoring system includes hardware and software. Under the computer control, the system can automatically complete the environment control of fermenter without human intervention, acquire and process field data, greatly increasing the yield of ethanol fermentation. The number and activity of yeast cells, the function of substrate and the production of ethanol are very important in the fermentation process.