The purpose of this study is to reduce the safety hazards and transportation costs of urban hazardous chemicals in the logistics distribution process. To this end, based on improved genetic algorithm, this paper conducts the time window processing and multi-objective processing to solve the model and then builds one multi-objective logistics distribution route optimization model of urban hazardous chemicals. The research shows that the established logistics distribution optimization system is beneficial to multi-objective optimization of logistics distribution process; the improved genetic algorithm promotes the computational efficiency of the optimization model and avoids the solving problem of traditional genetic algorithm approaching to local optimal solution; the logistics distribution route optimization model of urban hazardous chemicals based on improved genetic algorithm is conductive to achieving the optimization goal of minimum distribution cost and minimum distribution risk. In addition, this study also verifies the scientificity and rationality of the multi-objective optimization model for logistics distribution route through the specified example. The theoretical results have significant social application value and engineering significance, which help to guide the multi-objective optimization of urban hazardous chemicals distribution route.