Curcuma (Curcuma longa L.) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and is a popular spice with a strong taste and remarkable yellowish color which has been increasingly interesting considering its possible to replace synthetic preservatives for containing compounds, such as curcumin, with high antifungal and antimicrobial activities. The goal of this paper was to assess the effect of the aqueous extract from the rhizome powder of Curcuma longa L. at different concentrations inhibiting the development of fungi isolated in bread. We analyzed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), percentage of fungal biomass inhibition, and mycelium diameter of Penicillium panemun, Penicillium citrinum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Cladosporium subliforme, and Aspergillus chevalieri. C. oxysporum and C. subliforme showed lower values for CIM, with 3.12 and 6.25 mg/ml of extract for growth inhibition, while the remaining strains were inhibited at 25 mg/ml. A. chevalieri was the most resistant strain to curcuma extract and suffered no interferences during its mycelium and biomass development processes. Cladosporium subliforme proved higher sensibility to the extract at 5%, with 85.3% and 98.5% of inhibition of mycelial and fungal biomass growth, respectively, followed by P. panemum, P. citrinum, and C. oxysporum with significant sensitivity to curcuma aqueous extract. Our study reveals that in addition to being used as an ingredient to provide food with color and flavor, the antimicrobial properties of curcuma can be studied as an alternative to the use of synthetic antifungal substances and benefit from expanding the shelf life of foods.