The effect of temperature and illumination intensity on the biomass growth of Chlorella vulgaris Beijer IPPAS C-2 microalgae cells, lipid biosynthesis and their fatty acid composition was studied experimentally. It has been established that temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) have a significant influence on the kinetics of microalgae biomass growth, biosynthesis of lipids and their fatty acid composition. Cultivation with increased levels of PAR and temperature leads to intensive cell division, which can be useful for seed preparation. At lower PAR levels and temperatures, the strain accumulates the maximum amount of biomass, lipids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acid composition has shown that this strain may be promising in the technology of producing raw materials for biofuel production and food additives.