Investigation of the Fluid Dynamic of the Modified Hartmann Tube Equipment by High-speed Video Processing
Danzi, Enrico
Franchini, Fausto
Dufaud, Olivier
Pietraccini, Matteo
Marmo, Luca

How to Cite

Danzi E., Franchini F., Dufaud O., Pietraccini M., Marmo L., 2021, Investigation of the Fluid Dynamic of the Modified Hartmann Tube Equipment by High-speed Video Processing, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 86, 367-372.


Hartmann tube equipment is used in the dust explosion experimental test to screen the flammability of powdered materials (according to ISO 80079-20) and to determine the Minimum ignition energy of dust (UNI EN 13824:2004). For the test, the nominal concentration, as the ratio between the dust sample mass and the chamber test volume (1.2 liters), is considered, assuming a uniform concentration distribution. Even though adopted as standard procedure, this approach does not consider the dust cloud's non-stationary conditions inside the tube: the effect of turbulence decrease and dust sedimentation during the test duration will affect the dust concentration locally and globally within the test enclosure. Moreover, it is well known that the turbulence intensity influences Minimum Ignition Energy.
This work derives from previous investigation on describing the dust cloud behavior within dust explosibility laboratory apparatuses. High-speed video recordings have recently been adopted to support the dust cloud dynamic analysis and visualize the cloud dispersion within a standard test setup, as the 20 L sphere and the modified Hartmann tube. This work intends to use different high-speed videos of dust dispersions in the modified Hartmann tube, with different injection pressure and sample mass, to focus on the behavior of the cloud at the typical delay time of the MIE measurement, i.e., 60-180 ms. Each video is processed frame by frame to reveal information on the cloud dynamics, otherwise hidden. The dust dynamic is accounted for calculating the variation in time of the brightness of pixels.
This way, it is possible to obtain a set of data that incorporate the effects of the dust cloud distribution and the velocity of the particles’ clusters. The experimental data processing will help to focus on the time-scale and the length scale of the turbulence. The next study will focus on evaluating the time and space scale of the dust cloud and identifying the effect of ignition time delay on the MIE measurement to provide indications to operate at the most conservative conditions (higher concentration) and to avoid issues and under/overestimates due to agglomeration, sedimentation or segregation of dust particles.