In this work, we propose a mapping of suitable feedstock, products, and technologies used in various stages of algae biorefinery, including cultivation, harvesting, dewatering, drying, cell disruption, and extraction. The current technologies at each interval are studied and compared with each other. To set up, compare and select the most promising production pathways, a superstructure is proposed. A superstructure of algae biorefinery based on a literature review is developed and presented. Due to the significant impact of the environment on compositions and the number of microalgae, the effect of two factors i.e., light intensity and nutrient composition, on biomass production efficiency are critical. We will further demonstrate the potential application of algae as source for various products such as cosmetic ingredients, nutraceuticals (e.g., carotenoids and proteins), energy carriers (e.g., biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen, biogas) and fertilizer.