Automated Fertilizer Blending System to Reduce Nitrogen Loss and Water Runoffs: A Best Evidence Review
Aziz, Dhiya' Hawina Che
Razak, Nurul Hanim
Zulkafli, Nur Izyan
Saat, Shahrizal
Mohd Tumari, Mohd Zaidi

How to Cite

Aziz D.H.C., Razak N.H., Zulkafli N.I., Saat S., Mohd Tumari M.Z., 2021, Automated Fertilizer Blending System to Reduce Nitrogen Loss and Water Runoffs: A Best Evidence Review, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 89, 367-372.


Current precision farming has prompted an urgent need to reconsider a plant condition-based automated fertilization system. Besides, the growing population rate has increased significantly increased crop production. As a result, efficient fertigation and irrigation methods like precision farming have been widely used. However, poor irrigation has led to more than 50 % of nitrogen losses and water lost to the environment, leading to toxicity exposure to the farmers, soil degradation, water quality deterioration, and eutrophication. Eutrophication causes dense harmful algae blooms, weed growth, low dissolved oxygen (DO), harming the marine ecosystem, eventually suffocating fish and other aquatic species. Reactive nitrogen losses known as nitrification represent reduced potential crop growth or wasted fertilizer. Therefore, an optimal supply and efficient fertilizer use are essential to reduce nitrogen pollution and water runoffs. This paper provides a systematic review on developing a control-based automated fertilizer blending system using a programmable logic controller and the advantages of plant control-based compared to a time-based fertilizer blending system. Control-based fertigation system can minimize water consumption up to 60% and minimizing 30% of fertilizer use. Conclusively, the control-based automated system can be the best fertilizer-sufficient management practices that benefit crop production without causing environmental problems.