van Wingerden K., Kluge M., Habib A.K., Ustolin F., Paltrinieri N., 2022, Medium-scale tests to investigate the possibility and effects of BLEVEs of storage vessels containing liquified hydrogen, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 90, 547-552.
Experiments have been performed to determine the consequences of a storage vessel containing liquified hydrogen (LH2) is engulfed by a fire. The tests were performed at the Test Site Technical Safety of the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung (BAM) in Germany within a research cooperation between BAM and Gexcon as part of the SH2IFT program. Three tests were performed using double-walled vacuum insulated vessels of 1 m3 volume varying the orientation of the vessel and the effect of the insulation material used (perlite or multi-layer insulation (MLI)). The degree of filling of the vessel was approximately 35 % in each of the tests performed. The fire load was provided by a propane fed burner positioned under the storage vessel and designed to give a homogeneous fire load. In one of the tests a rupture of the storage vessel occurred causing a blast, a fireball and fragments. Apart from measuring these consequences, the conditions in the vessel (e.g. temperatures and pressure) during the heating process were monitored in all three tests. The work described was undertaken as part of the project Safe Hydrogen fuel handling and Use for Efficient Implementation (SH2IFT).