Purpose of this paper is to outline a framework for resources and energy efficiency auditing activities and present its application in field studies carried out in Italy and in Eastern Europe, to support Companies and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) in the implementation of actions to improve industrial performances and reduce global environmental impacts. Among environmental considerations, climate change mitigation and adaptation aspects are included, as well as circular economy, pollution prevention and preservation of biodiversity. Within this context, this study focuses on the peculiar case of the textile industry, which is characterized by a significant use of energy and resources, mainly water and chemicals, thus involving the respect of the Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals Programme. The auditing approach is conceived as a step-by step sequence of activities, starting from the Job Assignment from the Client based on specific Terms of Reference, followed by the submission of a data collection questionnaire, tailored to the specific textile industry, site survey with company managers and concluded with the elaboration of the technical report. In order to demonstrate the capability of the approach, the applicative section of this paper will present results in terms of technical and managerial actions to reduce energy and water consumption and GHGs emissions, as well as to control water pollution and waste generation and disposal.