The major aspects affecting the environmental and health impact of the fused deposition modelling (FDM) are concerned with energy consumption, waste material, and emission of harmful by-products. To reduce pollution associated with 3D printing development, a study has been conducted to optimize operating temperatures, process times, and filament constituting material, with carefulness as the same characteristics may adversely affect the appearance and mechanical properties of 3D printed parts. In this regard, pellets of polylactide acid (PLA) have been extruded in a lab compounder to create a bio-based filament that was printed under various operating conditions, i.e., by changing layer thickness (0.14, 0.19, 0.29 mm), infill density (50, 70%, 100%), patter (linear, honeycomb, octangular), extruder temperature (from 180 to 220 °C). 3D printed specimens were examined using dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) by verifying the sample size and weight, as well as the printing time. Analysis on material viscosity at different testing temperatures was also performed to identify potential range of extruder temperatures, and limit printing attempts Finally, measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission have been conducted on thermally treated samples at temperatures of 70°C, 190°C, and 220°C, to gain information on potential quantity of pollution deriving from the extruded polymer, deposited layers on the heated plate, and potential residues in the printer.