Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) are usually the root causes of complex system failures. Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods to build the structure of HOFs have been proposed. However, they typically lack validated data. To address this limitation, learning from the past has been considered regarding the EU Major Accident Reporting System’s (eMARS) records. Category data analysis has been applied to support the quantitative analysis. With the HOFs related near-miss and major accidents recorded by eMARS reports, the obtained results show deep insights about the co-influence and contributions of HOFs to the accidents and the possibility to predict the hazards to the process safety, environment, and cost consequences. Our framework contributes to enhancements in HOFs accidents control and mitigation by enabling risk awareness.