Self-healing encapsulation for concrete repair is a technology that has been in considerable attention recently. Encapsulation permits an active substance to be immobilized, protected, released, and functionalized. Herein, nanocellulose from durian (Durio zibethinus) rinds were prepared to encapsulate silica, the primary self-healing agent. The investigation focused on the augmentation of encapsulated self-healing material-containing concrete’s mechanical properties. The synthesized durian nanocellulose (DNC) has a sheet-like morphology, whereas the encapsulated silica has a rough surface morphology based on the SEM micrographs. DNC and urea-formaldehyde (UF) were used to encapsulate silica, and the synthesized composite (DNC-UF@SiO2) was mixed in a cementitious matrix to test its self-healing properties. Results showed that the addition of the self-healing material augmented the mechanical properties of concrete in both the pristine condition and healed samples. Notably, the DNC-UF@SiO2 showed better mechanical performance and lower water absorption than UF encapsulated SiO2. Hence, the prepared encapsulated self-healing material embedded in concrete showed significant healing potential concerning compressive and tensile strengths after damage, surpassing control specimens. Finally, a synthesis procedure was developed to prepare nanocellulose from durian rinds and encapsulate silica, showing a potential upcycling route of waste durian rinds for construction materials.