The purpose of the presented in this paper research is to give the physicochemical and morphological characterization of one of the most popular among Kazakhstani people peloid of Moiyldy lake. The results could lead to a more complex use of their potential as a self-healing source of biologically active components of natural origin as an environmentally safe material. A review of the available studies of natural mud in Kazakhstan has shown the absence of systematic studies of the composition and structure of peloids in the North-Eastern part of the country. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the data obtained with previous studies of peloids of other Kazakhstan regions was carried out. The results indicate that the studied samples of therapeutic mud have a medium mineralized, slightly alkaline continental origin with an insignificant content of humic carbon (3.861 %). It is characterized by an increased concentration of ammonium (253,849 mg kg-1), which is the biologically active component that has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on the elemental content, it is concluded that elements whose gross concentrations exceed the accepted values are bismuth (41.4 times), tantalum (10.6 times), and cesium (8.0 times). The mineralogical and elemental analysis results demonstrate diverse composition that allows biologically active elements synergistically empower their effect and expand the scope of the therapeutic application of peloid in the future.