Cartagena is one of the cities with the greatest historical and cultural heritage in Colombia. It is surrounded by a system of islands, lagoons, creeks, and swamps among other water bodies. The Juan Angola creek is one of the most representative water bodies in the city of Cartagena due to the areas it covers. However, it currently has serious pollution problems. In this research, the impact generated by the population settled on Juan Angola creek is studied through the evaluation of socioeconomic indicators. A characterization of the environment adjacent to Juan Angola creek which included social, economic, educational, environmental, and cultural aspects, based on information from government databases was done. Considering the above, the socioeconomic indicators based on the adaptation of the West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI) method were evaluated. For the application of the method, the following indicators were considered: water availability, water supply coverage, education, sanitation, poverty, unemployment, informality, health impact, and the water quality indicator. The results showed that poverty, informality, unemployment, and water quality have the greatest effects and impacts on the environmental conditions of the water system. Therefore, to contribute in the reduction of the contamination levels in Juan Angola creek, it is necessary to prioritize the implementation of comprehensive activities that allow the population to strengthen human capital through training programs and linkage to the formal labour market.