A Comparative Safety Assessment of Hydrogen Storage Tanks for Hydrogen-powered Buses
Schiaroli, Alice
Scarponi, Giordano E.
Cozzani, Valerio

How to Cite

Schiaroli A., Scarponi G.E., Cozzani V., 2023, A Comparative Safety Assessment of Hydrogen Storage Tanks for Hydrogen-powered Buses, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 99, 151-156.


Hydrogen is a promising zero-emission fuel that could play a key role in the transition towards a more sustainable economy. It is regarded as a possible fuel for the future that could replace traditional fossil fuels and reduce the consequent amount of greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast with the undeniable benefits introduced by the use of hydrogen as a fuel, its hazardous properties rise concern from the safety standpoint. A potential loss of integrity of the storage equipment might lead to severe consequences such as fires and explosions. The current investigation aims at quantifying the impact of the outcomes of an unexpected hydrogen release from the storage vessels designed for hydrogen-powered buses. A comparative analysis is carried out considering the different conditions in which hydrogen is currently stored on board: as a high-pressure gas, as a cryogenic liquid or as a cryo-compressed gas. According to the operating conditions, a set of accident scenarios that may follow the release of hydrogen is identified and an event tree analysis is carried out to determine the resulting dangerous phenomena. The impact of such phenomena is assessed in terms of damage distances. The results of the study demonstrate the high hazardousness of cryo-compression and highlight that liquid and compressed hydrogen are the preferable solutions from a safety standpoint.