Evaluation of the Environmental Toxicity Profile of Shampoos Formulated with Plant Biosurfactants
Bezerra, Karen G. O.
Da Costa, Keila I.
dos Santos, Julio C.V.
da Silva, Elanie S.C.
Luna, Juliana M.
de Almeida, Fabiola C.G.
Rufino, Raquel D.
Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

How to Cite

Bezerra K.G.O., Da Costa K.I., dos Santos J.C., da Silva E.S., Luna J.M., de Almeida F.C., Rufino R.D., Sarubbo L.A., 2023, Evaluation of the Environmental Toxicity Profile of Shampoos Formulated with Plant Biosurfactants, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 99, 217-222.


In developing new cosmetics, a series of steps must be followed until the final product is reached. In general, the process goes through the initial idea and preliminary research before reaching the development of the prototype. After the development of the prototype, several analytical tests are carried out to prove the viability of the product before production on a pilot scale. In the present work, three prototypes of innovative shampoo formulations containing plant extracts, rich in biosurfactants, of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), Glycine max (soy) and Malpighia emarginata (acerola) as cleaning agents were analyzed for their environmental toxicity profile. The plant extracts used aimed to reduce the use of toxic synthetic surfactants and to produce safe, renewable and biodegradable formulations, to help solve the challenges related to the damage caused to the environment due to the presence of synthetic surfactants in shampoo formulations and their toxic residues in soils and waters. The toxicity of the formulations was evaluated at a concentration of 1%, and the tests carried out were the phytotoxicity tests through the static test involving seed germination and root elongation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the Allium cepa L. root growth inhibition test. A toxicity test was also performed using the microcrustacean Artemia salina as a bioindicator. A formulation without the addition of surfactants, another containing only DCG, and a commercially available shampoo, whose acceptability is known, were used as comparative standards. The results showed that the formulations showed reduced or no toxic activity for the environmental bioindicator Artemia salina, for the seeds of S. lycopersicum and for the root growth of Allium cepa L., indicating the biocompatibility and safety of these formulations, thus presenting the potential for future commercialization, for the supply of new biotechnological products with high added value.