Export-Import of Virtual Carbon Emissions and Water Flows Embodied in International Trade
Liu, X.
Klemeš, J.J.
Cucek, L.
Varbanov, P.S.
Yang, S.
Qian, Y.
Download PDF

How to Cite

Liu X., Klemeš J., Cucek L., Varbanov P., Yang S., Qian Y., 2015, Export-Import of Virtual Carbon Emissions and Water Flows Embodied in International Trade, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 45, 571-576.
Download PDF


In the globalised world the greenhouse gas emission and water consumption are becoming increasingly important indicators for policy and decision making. Development of footprint assessment techniques over the last decade has provided a set of tools for monitoring CO2 emissions and water flows in the world. An overview of the virtual CO2 and virtual water flow trends in the international trade based on consumption perspective is performed. Review of the recent literature indicates that: (1) There are significant CO2 gaps between producer?s and consumer?s emissions, and US and EU have high absolute net imports CO2 budget. (2) China is an exporting country and increasingly carries a load of CO2 emission and virtual water export that are triggered due to consumption in other importing countries. (3) By imported products that are produced with lower carbon emission intensity and less water consumption then in the domestic industry, international trade can reduce global environmental pressure. A future direction should be focused into two main areas: (1) To provide the self-sufficient regions based on more efficient processes by combining production of surrounding countries. (2) To develop the shared mechanism and market share of virtual carbon and virtual water between trading partners regionally and internationally.
Download PDF