Achievement and Characterization of Cellulose Nanowhiskers of Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) and Bromelia Fibers (Neoglaziovia Variegate)
Goncalves, A.P.
Cruz, A.
Sales, J.
Souza, M.
Silva, F.
Guimaraes, D.
Mattedi, S.
Jose, N.
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Goncalves A., Cruz A., Sales J., Souza M., Silva F., Guimaraes D., Mattedi S., Jose N., 2016, Achievement and Characterization of Cellulose Nanowhiskers of Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) and Bromelia Fibers (Neoglaziovia Variegate), Chemical Engineering Transactions, 50, 403-408.
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The cellulose nanocrystals, also known as nanowhiskers, are particles extracted from crystalline regions of cellulose in which one of its dimensions is on the nanometric scale. They have the following advantages: low density, renewable character, good mechanical properties, availability, biodegradability and can be obtained from various vegetable fibers, whom originated from biomass residues, through different methods. For example, the acid hydrolysis in controlled conditions destroys the amorphous regions between the cellulose microfibrils. Brazil has a high lignocellulosic biomass availability deriving from waste produced in different industrial sectors. This, combined with the necessity to employ renewable resources for production of new materials, inspires a great opportunity for technological advancements, adding value to agribusiness products. The fibers of a kind of palm (Elaeis guineensis) and of bromelia (Bromeliaceae) are highlighted in this work as a source for obtaining cellulose nanowhiskers.This study aimed to obtain and characterize through TG, DSC, FTIR, XRD and TEM two different cellulose nanowhiskers and from two studied fibers, as well as to compare them as raw materials for future use as reinforcement in polymers composites. From the results of the TEM, it could be inferred that the acid hydrolysis allowed the attainment of nanowhiskers with a needle format. Based on the results of XRD and TG, the bromelia fibers had higher thermal stability and higher crystallinity index when compared to the palm fibers.
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