In this study, eighteen prefecture-level cities in China’s Henan province are divided into 5 compost utilization regions based on geographical adjacency and similarity in agricultural production. Then, the author calculated the potential demand of compost in agriculture and the potential compost supply from agricultural organic wastes (straw and livestock manure), and carried out an in-depth supply and demand analysis. The results show that the overall compost demand-supply ratio in Henan is around 1.21, indicating that the supply falls short of demand. This means all the organic wastes of Henan are utilized in agriculture of this region. In addition, the livestock mature-based compost differs greatly from straw-based compost in the ratio of potential supply, owing to the differences in geographical location and agricultural production. There are also large fluctuations in the supply-demand ratio in compost utilization region.