Throughout the world, the fossil fuel has supplied around the 80% of the energetic requirements, in Colombia alone 95.1% of energetic demand is made by the transportation sector solely, supplied by oil, kerosene, gasoline and diesel, this sector has an extremely small participation with biofuel of 3%, which is represented only by biodiesel.
Microalgae had been proposed as biofactories with a remarkable third generation biofuels production. The culture of the microorganism comprehends interesting characteristics as countless environments where its natural growth could be replicated in fresh, salty and even sewage waters, with a higher growth rate and a higher oil production. The implementation of enzymes in the transesterification process have generated a good curiosity in the field, due to its mild reactions conditions, lesser energetic requirements, a high standard in the selection of the enzymes with the objective of avoiding the formation of soaps, creating in this way cleaner products and sub-products, in which the separation of the phases biodiesel/glycerol, give the possibility to recuperate the bio catalyzer and high output of reactions. However, the high volume of medium required to obtain lipids is one of the major drawbacks to test the viability of these enzymes. The present study aims to design an enzymatic transesterification process for the production of biodiesel form synthetic Chlorella oil. The synthetic oil was designed according to the lipid profile of C 16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 from Chlorella spp CHL2 cultured on Bold Basal media under limited concentrations of NaNO3.
The enzymatic transesterification efficiency was evaluated by the implementation of a 22 experimental factorialdesign (temperature and lipase concentration) under a 3: 1 molar ratio of alcohol:oil and a fixed reaction time of 6 hours. The obtained results show that, in order to obtain superior yields of biodiesel (>91%) the transesterification process must be carried out under temperature conditions close to 38°C and lipase concentrations of 5%.