The purpose of this study is to diagnose and analyse the overcharge and overdischarge fault of lithium ion battery. Through the dynamic simulation model, the phenomenon of overcharge and overdischarge fault for automotive lithium-ion battery (LIB) was discussed, and the fault diagnosis effect was summarized. The results of this study show that the fault diagnosis analysis of LIB can achieve good results. It is of certain application value for diagnosis of LIB with different parameters. Therefore, it’s concluded that the overcharge and overdischarge faults of automotive LIB are likely to jeopardize the using effect of the batteries, which should attract more attention of relevant automobile manufacturers.