The search of the novel stable and active catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis aimed at the formation of gasoline-range hydrocarbons is one of the main directions for the production of liquid transportation fuels from the alternative feedstock. The stabilization of the active phase is one of the key challenges for the development of the catalysts of CO hydrogenation into liquid motor fuel. This problem can be solved by the choice of optimal support as well as the method of synthesis. The rigid polymeric matrices allow obtaining highly effective and stable metal-containing nanoparticles characterized by the high surface area and enhanced activity. A hydrothermal deposition is a promising way to produce catalysts with the high dispersion of the active phase avoiding the pore blockage by the metal-containing particles. The current work is devoted to the development of novel polymer-based mono- and bimetallic Co-, Ni-, and Ru-containing nanocatalysts for the liquid-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It was shown that 1 % Ru-HPS and 10 % Co-1 % Ru-HPS allow obtaining a high yield of gasoline-range C5-C9 hydrocarbons (over 70 %) providing high CO conversion (up to 23 %). The chosen polymer-based systems showed high stability in the FTS process. The activity loss was found to be insignificant for both catalysts (3.2 % for 1 % Ru-HPS, and 8.2 % for 10 % Co-1 % Ru-HPS) after 20 h of the process.