This paper presents a study of the pyrolysis process of oil residues in the presence of catalysts based on natural and synthetic aluminosilicates. The process of fast thermal decomposition was studied in a continuous reactor at a residence time of feedstock in the reaction zone less than 20 s. The optimum temperature of oil-sludge decomposition was determined taking into account the yield of gaseous and liquid pyrolysis products. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for the studied feedstock was found to be 600 °C. The study of the effect of the aluminosilicates on the oil-sludge thermal decomposition showed that among the studied catalysts, zeolites were found to be the most active. The highest yield of gaseous and liquid products was observed In the presence of three-dimensional porous pentasil zeolite H-ZSM-5. H-ZSM-5 was found to provide the 40 wt. % yield of liquid and 13.5 wt/ % of gaseous products during the fast oil-sludge pyrolysis at the optimal temperature. In order to reduce the cost of the catalyst used, a catalyst representing a mixture of zeolite H-ZSM-5 and bentonite clay was synthesized. This catalyst also showed high activity in the process of oil-containing residue composition providing 36 w. % yield of liquid products and 10 wt. % of gaseous products. It is interesting to note, that in the presence of the mixed catalyst the highest yield of light liquid fraction (50 wt. %) was obtained.