Safety distances due to domino effects
Laheij, Gerald
Spoelstra, Margreet
Mahesh, Soedesh
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How to Cite

Laheij G., Spoelstra M., Mahesh S., 2019, Safety distances due to domino effects, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 77, 943-948.
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Domino effects can be defined as the escalation of an initial failure of a system, resulting in the failure of a second nearby situated system with more severe consequences. Domino effects are not a part of the prescribed risk methodologies in the Netherlands, used for spatial planning purposes. However, in some risk methodologies domino effects are specifically addressed. Examples are domino effects due to nearby airports, wind turbines and flooding's; they have to be considered when they contribute for more than 10 percent to the initial failure frequency of equipment. Domino effects have to be considered as well in determining internal safety distances within establishments and in the design of pipeline corridors. In determining safety distances for LPG storage sites, the most important type of domino accident is the BLEVE of a pressure vessel. The initiating events that are identified are pool fire, jet fire and fire from buildings. Safety distances are defined that should reduce the likelihood of a BLEVE. With respect to pipeline corridors domino effects are a threat due to the high density of pipelines in the corridor and failure of one pipeline may result in the failure of an adjacent pipeline. Pipeline corridors are planned all over the Netherlands and in view of these developments an investigation was started into the design of domino free pipeline corridors. Initiating events that are identified are among other overpressure caused by physical explosions, heat radiation resulting from a pool fire or a jet fire, a large temperature drop caused by the release of liquefied gases or supercritical fluids and earth removal causing free span problems. This paper gives an overview of the different approaches in the Netherlands used to control the probability of domino effects, with a focus on LPG storage sites and pipeline corridors.
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