In this study, a polysulfone Escherichia coil biomass composite fiber (PSBF) was prepared by thoroughly mixing and extruding a mixture of polysulfone and E. coil biomass. poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was then crosslinked on the PSBF surface to fabricate PAA-PSBF. The adsorption performance of PAA-PSBF on Methylene Blue (MB) was evaluated by several batch tests such as pH edge, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments were also conducted to examine the desorption efficiency and reusability of PAA-PSBF. As a result, it was optimal at pH 7 to remove MB by PAA-PSBF. The result of the kinetic experiments showed that at least 300 min was required to reach the adsorption equilibrium at the initial dye concentration of 200 mg/L. The isotherm experiment data were well illustrated by the Langmuir model and the maximum dye uptake was 225.2 mg/g at pH 7. By using a HCl-acidified solution with pH 2 as an eluent, the MB adsorbed on the PAA-PSBF was easily desorbed and the depleted PAA-PSBF was successfully regenerated. In addition, PAA-PSBF can be reused at least 3 times with good reusability.