Carbon aerogel is taken into account for a new material with many unique properties that can be applied in many different application fields. The properties of carbon aerogels are distributed across a wide range and are controlled by many conditions in the synthesis process. For each different application area, carbon aerogel is synthesized under different conditions to meet the required properties for materials such as: surface area, specific gravity, conductivity, pore size, etc. Therefore, the assessment of the quality of synthetic carbon aerogels will create a premise to guide them in appropriate fields. Besides, it is also possible to optimize the synthesis process to achieve materials of good quality, properties suitable for each specific requirement. The specific weight less than 0.5 g/cm3. Specific surface area from 633 to 800 m2/g. Pore size from 7 to 22 A With the properties of carbon aerogel materials synthesized, assess the adsorption capacity of carbon aerogel to treat heavy metals Fe, As and pesticides (Cypermethrin / DDT) in laboratory water samples and surface water samples taken from the rivers in the Cuu Long Delta. The results show that the ability to adsorb and process metals and pesticides is very good. Processing efficiency of iron and arsenic reaches 92-99%. Meanwhile, the ability to absorb plant protection drugs Cypermethrin / DDT also reached 95 - 99 %.