In this work, silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) have been used as a treatment for common polyester-based fabric in light of imparting the hydrophobicity to the respective surface. In view of preserving the durability and the eco-friendliness of the developed products, by promoting the entrapment of the particles within the textile weaving, as a binder, polyurethane water-based dispersion (PUD) has been adopted. This resin has been chosen solvent-free, and endowed with the flexibility for retaining the elasticity of the overall textile structure. The nanoparticles (content up to 5% in wt.) were combined with PUD, also including crosslinking agent, by utilizing a magnetic stirring at high rotational speed. The samples were prepared through the impregnation method and dried at room temperature in order to reproduce as much as possible the continuous production process on a large scale with low energy and environmental impact. The prepared specimens were tested in terms of tensile, tear, abrasion and water repellency. Experimental results demonstrated the benefits arisen from the polyurethane application to the textile weaving in tensile, abrasion and water resistance. On the contrary, the tear strength of the fabric structure was lowered by the presence of the polymer treatment. As expected, the introduction of silica particles within the aqueous solution has been particularly relevant for further increment of the water resistance of the PUD-impregnated materials without causing an excessive increase in the weight and changes in the final appearance. This outcome has been intended as a sign of the potential applicability of the developed products in the fields of luggage or bags production and for the indoor or outdoor uses.