The agri-food industry has a fundamental role in the Italian and European economy and is characterized by the need to reduce energy costs and emissions. Therefore, it is essential for food companies to give due consideration to the energy efficiency of the processes, to reduce production costs, without sacrificing the quality of primary production and maintaining adequate levels of competitiveness on the market. In this study, a theoretical and experimental mass and energy balance of the production process of fresh pasta was made, also considering the energy contributions of a cogeneration plant recently built in the company subject of the experimental study. The final aim was to determine scientific values of specific energy consumption for this type of production by mean a new modelling approach. The mass and energy balances were carried out for the production line of fresh semolina pasta, as well as for the cogeneration plant; monitoring the flows of raw materials and steam that characterize the production process. The results of this study can be generalized to all production processes of the same type and, in the specific case, constitute a decisive logical step for the definition of the energy recovery solutions to be adopted in the company studied, in relation to their economic-production needs.