Paper-based Heavy Metal Ion Detection in Wastewater Using Plumeria Rubra (kalachuchi) Latex
Cabotaje, Jeralyn G.
Lawagon, Chosel P.

How to Cite

Cabotaje J.G., Lawagon C.P., 2022, Paper-based Heavy Metal Ion Detection in Wastewater Using Plumeria Rubra (kalachuchi) Latex, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 92, 31-36.


An easy-to-use, portable, and cost-effective paper-based heavy metal ions detection using the latex from the kalachuchi plant was developed. Specifically, a paper strip determines heavy metal ions in wastewater using kalachuchi latex as a detecting agent. It examines the change of color in the aqueous solution containing heavy metal ions. This study also investigated the effects of the latex detecting agent in terms of the following conditions: (a) varying concentration of the solution, (b) increased pH of the solution, (c) latex dosage, and (d) recyclability. Kalachuchi latex-coated paper strips detected the heavy metals in several wastewater sample solutions. SEM micrographs were used to investigate the morphology of the latex, and EDX analysis was conducted to determine its elemental compositions. Results showed that the solutions with the lowest concentration (0.05 ppm) offer a faint color change, while those with a concentration > 0.25 ppm show considerable color change. An intense color change in solutions showed that the detection capability of the latex-coated strip increases and favors those solutions with higher pH. The latex was also tested on hybrid solutions and has also been effective in detecting the presence of heavy metal ions. Its reusability makes it more cost-efficient and practical to detect heavy metal ions in wastewaters whose concentration is as low as 0.05 ppm. Hence, this paper-based detecting agent can be used as a portable, onsite, and easy-to-use way of detecting heavy metal contamination in wastewater.