The issue of high CO2 emission is significant in terms of climate neutrality aspiration. Overall, cement and aggregate production play crucial role in global CO2 emission. Researchers conduct investigations regarding their partial replacement with various waste materials. Currently, enormous amounts of oil refinery wastes (ORW) are generated worldwide, due to the unquestionable significance of petrochemical industry. Since they contain various hydrocarbon compounds and heavy metals, their disposal, in many cases, is limited to landfilling. This might possess a threat to our environment and health, as undesired chemical contaminants release to soil and water, while dust might be moved around by wind. Based on literature knowledge, the recycling of ORW in cementitious composites seems to be reliable research direction, providing potential to bind contaminants in hardened matrix and address aforementioned problem. Waste fluid catalytic cracking catalyst was mainly examined, but still without industrial implementation. Plenty of other ORW were not investigated, providing many research gaps. Considering the above, this paper presents the current state of knowledge, limitations, opportunities, and future development trends, concerning a comprehensive approach to the feasibility assessment of incorporating ORW in cementitious composites. It is vital that appropriate use of ORW might lead to prepare high quality cementitious composites revealing 30 % higher compressive strength. Their adverse impact, e.g. on rheological properties, might be mitigated by tailoring formulations of composites. Their applicability performance might be improved by purification, which has been highlighted in following paper.