Land-based sectors play significant roles in carbon emissions, and removals, including agriculture, forestry, other land uses (AFOLU), as well as land use and cover change (LUCC). More than 20 % of carbon emissions globally are from land-based sectors. It is increasingly crucial to identify and model the relationship between land-based sectors and climate change, especially toward the carbon emissions neutrality target or net-zero emission goal. However, few works so far were systematically and comprehensively designed for this topic. The boundary of land-based sectors is not clearly defined, and the linkages between land-based sectors and carbon emissions are not well identified. This paper overviewed the relationship between land-based sectors and climate change toward the carbon emissions neutrality goal to narrow the research gaps. The AFOLU-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were identified, the implications for land-based emissions reduction were discussed, and the potential priority action areas were summarised. This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between land use and climate change.