CO2 transport, storage and monitoring (TSM) cost for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) scenario was estimated for Buzzi Unicem Vernasca Cement Plant (BUV ?P) and HeidelbergCement Group Italcementi Calusco D'adda (HCICD) CP, located at 125 and 34 km via pipelines distance respectively from the Malossa storage site. Total emissions produced in 2020 by two CPs were 1.2 Mt CO2. About 1.1 Mt CO2 captured annually and 23 Mt during 20 years of the project duration could be transported and stored in the prospective for CO2 storage 83 m thick Upper Miocene Messinian Sergnano Gravel conglomerate Formation located at 1240 m depth in the Malossa structure. 3D geological static models of the storage reservoir in the Malossa structure (34 km2 area) were constructed using 18 wells and PETREL software.
Estimated TSM costs were the most economic for HCICD CP (4 €/t CO2 avoided), explained by the close location to the Malossa storage site and sharing of monitoring costs with BUV CP. TSM cost for BUV CP is higher (15.1 €/t CO2) explained by the longer pipeline distance (125 km) and the needed CO2 recompression. Total costs for the CCS scenario will depend on the final costs of Ca-looping CO2 capture at the BUV CP achieved by the CLEANKER project. The estimated maximum total CCS cost for BUV CP could be 73 €/t CO2 avoided, the maximum CCS cost for HCICD CP is 62 €/t CO2. These costs are already feasible considering 80-90 €/t CO2 price in EU ETS reached in 2021.