Lithium-ion Batteries: Analysis of Intrinsic Hazards and Evaluation of Minimum Safety Requirements Through Risk Assessment of Storage and Testing Installations
Soffientini, Lorenza
Chiusolo, Cristina
Gotti, Mauro

How to Cite

Soffientini L., Chiusolo C., Gotti M., 2022, Lithium-ion Batteries: Analysis of Intrinsic Hazards and Evaluation of Minimum Safety Requirements Through Risk Assessment of Storage and Testing Installations, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 96, 181-186.


Nowadays the demand for lithium-ion battery technology is continuously growing (The European Association for Advanced Rechargeable Batteries, 2013), above all for e-mobility: cells with lithium ion-based chemistries have proven to be most suitable for providing energy in an electrified car with a traction motor (EUCAR, 2019). For this reason, it is fundamental that these devices are proved to be safe.
To produce and put on the market this type of product, it is of paramount importance to be aware of current battery testing methods and good practices to ensure safe use and storage. Nevertheless, it is always necessary to carry out risk analyses to verify that the systems implemented fit every single industrial reality. In this article, the mode of operation of generic lithium batteries, which, due to their intrinsic nature, present some risks such as chemical and/or electrical, is first analysed.
Following, a brief description of the current technologies for conducting performance tests of Lithium-ion batteries is illustrated, with particular reference to testing facilities.
This article aims to demonstrate that every risk associated with the production, use, and storage of lithium batteries inside climatic chambers facilities which must have minimum design requirements for safety devices and systems (such as Fire&Gas detection system, smoke detectors, etc.), is properly addressed through risk assessment analysis such as HAZard Identification (HAZID), Reliability Analysis, and Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA).
Three methodologies of risk analysis (HAZID, Reliability Analysis, and LOPA) are discussed more in detail: every type of safety assessment addresses different problems and should be applied in accordance to what is the goal of the analysis. In detail, it is shown that HAZID methodology is more suitable when it is the overall working area to be investigated (for example, shifts, working conditions, authorized accesses, etc.). Reliability analysis shows its strength when it comes to assessing the presence and the proper dimensioning of a utility network or process equipment. Last, the LOPA analysis allows understanding which is the minimum Safety Integrity Level (SIL) level a single safety loop of each equipment should be marked with allocated.
Finally, through the analysis of different case studies, it is demonstrated that the combination of the minimum safety requirements identified, along with the application of risk analysis, are valuable means to properly manage the risk related to lithium-ion batteries.