Nano-scale lipid vesicles or liposomes are extremely important lipid particles because of their unique properties and possible incorporation of various biologically active substances into their interior. Therefore, they can be used for numerous biomedical applications. Liposomes have the ability to protect incorporated bioactive substances, thereby preserving their function. They have a significant advantage over various nanoparticles, as they can bind and transfer hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic compounds.
The aim of the study was the synthesis of liposomes, suitable for the potential encapsulation of active ingredients for pharmaceutical and clinical purposes. Liposomes were prepared using a thin lipid film hydration method with glass beads. The synthesized liposomes were characterized by measuring the zeta potential to determine their stability, polydispersity index, and particle size. Furthermore, the biologically active ingredient gallic acid (GA) was incorporated into the lipid vesicles at different concentrations. The encapsulation efficiency of the active ingredient GA in liposomes and the in vitro release of the encapsulated bioactive component were studied using the dialysis technique. Synthesized nano-scale lipid vesicles were found to be stable, with an average size of 181.5 nm. The highest encapsulation efficiency (98.3%) and the highest percentage of released bioactive substance (38.3%) were obtained at 0.1 mg/mL of GA. GA-incorporated nano-scale lipid vesicles are promising as suitable carriers of bioactive ingredients for various therapeutic purposes.