The production of dairy products in the relevant supply chains (SCs) is associated with the generation of significant amounts of pollutants in the wastewater and CO2 emissions into the air, which released into the environment can cause a great risk of its pollution. The presence of uncertainties regarding the released amounts of pollutants further exacerbates the environmental problem. One of the ways to capture these uncertainties and control the environmental risk of pollution is by applying approaches to optimal design of sustainable supply chains operating under uncertainty conditions. The present study proposes a mixed integer non-linear programming approach to the optimal design of a sustainable SC for the production of two types of dairy products with a choice of technology, which includes models of economic, environmental and social impact as well as dairy production. The latter takes into account uncertainties regarding the environmental impact costs for treatment of the generated pollutants in terms of wastewater and CO2 emissions related to the SC activities.
The efficiency of the proposed approach has been proved in a real case from Bulgaria, which includes suppliers of two types of milk and dairy plants for the production of two types of dairy products and markets.