Quantification of Carbon Footprint in Petroleum Refinery Process
Jamaludin, Nabila F.
Shuhaimi, Nur A.
Mohamed, Ola Y.
Hadipornama, Muhammad F.

How to Cite

Jamaludin N.F., Shuhaimi N.A., Mohamed O.Y., Hadipornama M.F., 2023, Quantification of Carbon Footprint in Petroleum Refinery Process, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 106, 97-102.


The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the petroleum refinery process leads to a significant negative impact, necessitating the measurement and accounting of carbon levels. Currently, there is a lack of specific guidelines or frameworks addressing carbon footprint accounting for petroleum refinery processes. This study aims to develop a framework for quantifying and assessing carbon footprint accounting in the petroleum refinery process in Malaysia. The framework involves establishing indicators and parameters to quantify and assess the carbon footprint, ultimately obtaining an approximate measure for carbon footprint accounting. The study focuses on the main process units involved in kerosene production within the petroleum refinery, following the standards set by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It specifically concentrates on two greenhouse gases, namely Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4), and limits carbon accounting to Tier 1 of the IPCC standards. The methodology of the study comprises seven steps, starting with familiarization of the plant and kerosene production, followed by the determination of parameters and indicators, greenhouse gas mapping, data collection, carbon footprint accounting, and analysis of GHG profile and results, Based on the calculated carbon emissions throughout the study, using a basis of 1,000 kg of feed per year, the results indicate that the carbon emissions in kerosene production are dependent on the production rate. This is evident from the data in 2020, during the pandemic, where the total carbon emissions were at their lowest, measuring 220.81 kg per 1000 kg of feed per year. As the world began to recover in 2021, the total carbon emissions increased to 252.07 kg per 1,000 kg of feed per year. As market demand continues to rise, the total carbon emissions are expected to increase accordingly, underscoring the importance of carbon footprint accounting to quantify emissions and the need for the implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce the overall carbon footprint.