Composting Activities in Vietnam – The Situation, Problems, and Challenges
Nguyen, Duy Bao
Fujiwara, Takeshi
Dinh, Cuong Le
Phu, Song Toan Pham

How to Cite

Nguyen D.B., Fujiwara T., Dinh C.L., Phu S.T.P., 2023, Composting Activities in Vietnam – The Situation, Problems, and Challenges, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 106, 613-618.


In Vietnam, biodegradable waste is a primary component of urban municipal solid waste, accounting for 54 - 65 % of the total waste. Aerobic composting is one of the most effective methods for reducing this waste as well as decarbonization, but with poor management, it is the greatest source of greenhouse gas emissions. According to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resource, there are 37 composting facilities in Vietnam, treating 16 % of the total municipal solid waste. However, the number of well-maintained facilities is decreasing over time, due to difficulties and challenges in operating and maintaining highly efficient composting. This study aimed at evaluating the current situation of composting facilities in Vietnam, evaluating the efficiency and problems in the composting facility in Hoi An City (HAC). Social and technical surveys were conducted to identify the social consensus on waste separation and to measure the performance of the Cam Ha composting facility. The results indicated that 91.95 % of HAC’s households were aware of the separation of waste since the waste segregation policy was implemented in 2012. In the composting facilities, raw materials for composting contained 40.44 % inorganic matter, showing the low efficiency in waste separation at source. 1.27 % glass and plastic debris in the composting product lowering the compost quality, raising the concern on human health and safety. This study gives an overview of Vietnam's composting situation and contributes to local decision-making related to the municipal solid waste management system toward sustainability and lowering global warming.
Keywords: biodegradable waste, composting, global warming, sustainable development, solid waste management.