Impact of Battery Price on Electric Bus Charging Scheduling and System
Lim, Lek Keng
Muis, Zarina Ab
Hashim, Haslenda
Ho, Wai Shin
Chee, Wan Choy

How to Cite

Lim L.K., Muis Z.A., Hashim H., Ho W.S., Chee W.C., 2023, Impact of Battery Price on Electric Bus Charging Scheduling and System, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 106, 757-762.


The electric bus can replace the continuously increasing number of diesel buses in the public transport sector as a result of strong travel demand, making it a promising alternative for reducing carbon emissions. The constraint in implementing the electric bus is the limited energy storage and high capital cost of batteries. A mathematical model is developed to minimize the total cost of electric buses, including capital costs and operation costs, by optimizing the bus charging schedule. A scenario analysis is carried out to determine the impact of battery costs on bus charging schedules. The results show that battery cost will have a huge impact on the charging pattern of electric buses and charger layout. In normal conditions, the model will prefer low battery capacity and charging during peak hours. When the battery price goes down from BAU to 10%, the battery capacity increases from 3,200 to 3,600 kWh, reducing the number of chargers built in a bus stop. This model can be a reference for transit planners.