Physicochemical Properties and Crystallisation Behaviour of Fat Blends for a Margarine Formulation
Sahat, Nur Shakira
Jusoh, Yanti Maslina Mohd
Hashim, Zanariah
Muhamad, Ida Idayu
Dailin, Daniel Joe
Zainol, Noorazwani
Nor, Nor Farahiyah Aman
Kassim, Angzzas Sari Mohd
Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang

How to Cite

Sahat N.S., Jusoh Y.M.M., Hashim Z., Muhamad I.I., Dailin D.J., Zainol N., Nor N.F.A., Kassim A.S.M., Zaidel D.N.A., 2023, Physicochemical Properties and Crystallisation Behaviour of Fat Blends for a Margarine Formulation, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 106, 1039-1044.


This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and crystallisation behaviour of fat blend to obtain a stable formulation of margarine. Liquefied palm oil (PO), palm stearin (PS) and palm kernel oil (PK) were mixed in four different ratios and the properties were analysed based on physicochemical properties (fatty acid composition, solid fat content (SFC) and slip melting point (SMP) and crystallisation behaviour as compared to a commercial margarine. The percentages of fatty acid (FA) composition were varied depending on the variation of type of fat and percentage of fat added. The result showed that PO:PS:PK blends of 70:10:20 gave the closest SMP (39 °C) with commercial margarine followed by 72:8:20, 75:5:20 and 70:15:15. SFC of 72:8:20 and 70:10:20 blends showed the closest to commercial margarine in the temperature range of 20–35 °C. The SFC percentage decreased significantly between 20(25 °C. From the crystallisation behavior, 70:10:20 and 70:15:15 showed the closest behaviour with commercial margarine. From the result, the blend with ratio of 70:10:20 was the most suitable fat basis formulation as it has the most similar properties and behaviour with commercial margarine. This formulation can be used as the basis for a stable margarine formulation with addition of anthocyanins from plant-based extract such as roselle extract.