A Comparative Study of ‘Tempe’ Produced from Different Beans as A Protein Source in Malaysia and Japan
Maqsood.Ul.Haque, Suzihaque
Kidani, Ena
Mohd.Jefri, Nurul Jahirah
Mokhtar, Siti Aisyah

How to Cite

Maqsood.Ul.Haque S., Kidani E., Mohd.Jefri N.J., Mokhtar S.A., 2023, A Comparative Study of ‘Tempe’ Produced from Different Beans as A Protein Source in Malaysia and Japan, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 106, 1363-1368.


Tempe is a traditional fermented food used widely in Southeast Asia especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. It has been consumed for a very long time since it is considered as a low-cost source of protein and can be consumed widely by people of every class. Tempe is generally made from dehulled, soaked solid soybeans which undergo fermentation by using Rhizopus subspecies. It has been classified as a nutrient-rich, easily assimilable, and tasty product in which it fulfills the needs of an increasing number of consumers who are looking for excellent meat substitutes. In spite of its many benefits, tempe has a short shelf life due to its microbial enzyme activity. To prolong shelf life, tempe were dried in an oven at a temperature of 80° C for 4 to 6 h. Therefore, the objective of this study was to produce three distinct varieties of tempe by using three types of beans which were; chickpeas, soybeans and Indian dahl. Indian dahl tempe resulted with the shortest time to boil and fully fermented. The nutrition analysis of the protein content of the beans were determined and soybeans were found to have the highest protein content (17 g). The sensory analysis for the three different types of tempe was also carried out, and soybean-fried tempe indicated the highest overall rating. This study provides an insight towards introducing tempe and its acceptance as a potential food choice in Japan since Japan is famously known for its ‘koji’, a starter culture for the production of shoyu and miso, fermented soybean foods and ‘sake’, a traditional alcoholic drink of Japan.