The amount of research and publications related to microplastic pollution has been steadily increasing in recent years, but at the same time, our current knowledge on the topic is still based on occasional point measurements. As a result of these point measurements, it becomes obvious that new research areas and disciplines are also connected to the topic of microplastics. Various biotic and abiotic processes can cause microplastics to enter the environment and spread within it. All of these mechanisms can arise from the moisture conditions of the tested medium, temperature differences, or even from the decomposing and transforming activities of microorganisms. The rise of biodegradable and compostable plastic bags can also be considered a source of this kind since polymer products labelled as environmentally friendly can be identified as secondary sources during their decomposition processes. Therefore, both industrial and household compost can contain microscopic polymer residues, the application of which involves a potential risk of environmental pollution. In recent years, several international studies have dealt with various aspects of the degradation of these products, including the use of problems caused by residual microplastics and their environmental effects. The focus of our paper is not on the development of a new scientific methodology but a summary of the current situation formed through research results dealing with the current environmental safety and environmental health risks of microplastic pollution caused by biodegradable polymers.