Greenhouse Gas Profiling to Increase Agricultural Mitigation Program Effectiveness in Indonesia
Sondakh, Daniel S. I.
Tulungen, Franky R.
Kampilong, Jon K.
Rumondor, Fadly S. J.
Kawuwung, Yolla S.

How to Cite

Sondakh D.S.I., Tulungen F.R., Kampilong J.K., Rumondor F.S.J., Kawuwung Y.S., 2023, Greenhouse Gas Profiling to Increase Agricultural Mitigation Program Effectiveness in Indonesia, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 107, 715-720.


This study aims to provide an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector, map the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions, and formulate effective mitigation strategies in Minahasa District. Primary data on rice field types, land processing systems, and fertilizer doses were obtained from the respondents. The method is the interview, and the instrument is the questionnaire. Secondary data is in the form of planting area and emission factor data. Data processing uses the Tier-1 method to obtain the amount of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gas emissions is done with the help of ArcMap. After that, the greenhouse gas mitigation strategy was formulated. Total agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: 3,578,093.27 t CO2-eq/y, consists of emissions CH4: 71,711.87 t CO2-eq/y; CO2 Fertilizer: 1,828,235.40 t/y; N20 Land Managed: 1,665,299.66 t CO2-eq/y; and emission N2O Indirect: 12,846.33 t CO2-eq/y. The largest gas emissions are CO2 (51.10 %) and N2O Land Managed (46.54 %). The largest GHG-contributing is West Langowan District (285,165.25 t CO2-eq/y). Various adaptation efforts are to adjust planting time and patterns and reduce the use of inorganic fertilizers. In contrast, mitigation efforts are implementing organic farming, regulating intermittent irrigation systems (dry and wet), using low-emission rice varieties, and utilizing soil improvement materials such as biochar.